Saturday, November 19, 2016


The area referred to as the Bermuda Triangle, or Devil’s Triangle, covers about 500,000 square miles of ocean off the southeastern tip of Florida. When Christopher Columbus sailed through the area on his first voyage to the New World, he reported that a great flame of fire (probably a meteor) crashed into the sea one night and that a strange light appeared in the distance a few weeks later. He also wrote about erratic compass readings, perhaps because at that time a sliver of the Bermuda Triangle was one of the few places on Earth where true north and magnetic north lined up.
William Shakespeare’s play “The Tempest,” which some scholars claim was based on a real-life Bermuda shipwreck, may have enhanced the area’s aura of mystery. Nonetheless, reports of unexplained disappearances did not really capture the public’s attention until the 20th century. An especially infamous tragedy occurred in March 1918 when the USS Cyclops, a 542-foot-long Navy cargo ship with over 300 men and 10,000 tons of manganese ore onboard, sank somewhere between Barbados and the Chesapeake Bay. The Cyclops never sent out an SOS distress call despite being equipped to do so, and an extensive search found no wreckage. “Only God and the sea know what happened to the great ship,” U.S. President Woodrow Wilson later said. In 1941 two of the Cyclops’ sister ships similarly vanished without a trace along nearly the same route.
A pattern allegedly began forming in which vessels traversing the Bermuda Triangle would either disappear or be found abandoned. Then, in December 1945, five Navy bombers carrying 14 men took off from a Fort Lauderdale, Florida, airfield in order to conduct practice bombing runs over some nearby shoals. But with his compasses apparently malfunctioning, the leader of the mission, known as Flight 19, got severely lost. All five planes flew aimlessly until they ran low on fuel and were forced to ditch at sea. That same day, a rescue plane and its 13-man crew also disappeared. After a massive weeks-long search failed to turn up any evidence, the official Navy report declared that it was “as if they had flown to Mars.”
Source :
*assignment under STID 1103

History of Mak Yong

Mak Yong was founded in the Pattani kingdom which is now a province of Thailand. Because it was passed down orally among villagers, Mak Yong's exact age is uncertain. However, the fact that it is mostly free of outside influence would make it 800 years old at the very least and almost certainly much older. Legend generally credits the dance to a rice spirit called Mak Hiang but a later belief tells that it was created by the clown-like divinity Semar. Historians are unsure whether Mak Yong evolved as a folk tradition or a palace theater. Either way it was patronized by all layers of society to pay respect to the spirits, give thanks for the harvest or to cure a person's biorhythm.
According to the Hikayat Patani, Mak Yong was brought to Kelantan more than 200 years ago. From there it spread to Kedah. Mak Yong was mostly performed for royalty until then but by 1920 it was more often seen among common folk. Whereas the palace theater mirrored the elegance of royalty, peasant performers enacted the life of workers in the rice fields. Nevertheless, Mak Yong's delicate movements, polite mannerisms and refined speech endured. In 1923, the king's youngest son, Long Abdul Ghaffar wanted Mak Yong to retain its courtly look. He built a cultural precinct called Kampung Temenggung on palace grounds to lend his support to the arts. During this time it became conventional to have a lead female. His death in 1935 was followed by World War II. Mak Yong was once again a folk tradition but it now regained much of the sophistication it had as a court theater, especially in the costumes, make-up and music.
The traditional Mak Yong had continued into the 1960s and 70s but was later impeded by the Islamic revival. When PAS(political party) took control of Kelantan in 1991, they banned Mak Yong in the state for its "unIslamic elements" and clothing which leaves the head and arms uncovered. Although many old performers defied the ban, Mak Yong could no longer be shown in public. Some thought the tradition would die out until UNESCO declared it a masterpiece of mankind's heritage. There has since been some effort to preserve Mak Yong outside Kelantan but interest among the younger generation is lacking.
Nowadays Mak Yong is seldom performed at cultural shows because priority is given to modern Malays ethnic group dances like Joget. It is sometimes still staged at weddings, to celebrate a state's independence or to pray for the king's long life. But these modern shortened performances are stripped of the old animist rituals and their music is simplified because the songs are played so infrequently. There are only a few troupes left who perform traditional Mak Yong in the villages of Kelantan and Terengganu.

Source :
*aasigmnent under STID 1103

History About Ulek Mayang

The Ulek Mayang is said to have its origin in an ancient tale about a sea-princess who fell in love with a fisherman. The princess abducted the fisherman's soul, leaving his body unconscious. His friends entreated a bomoh (shaman) to heal him. When the bomoh conducted the healing ritual to bring the fisherman's soul back, the princess appeared and responded by calling on five of her sisters to her aid. The battle between the bomoh and the six princesses continued until the seventh and the eldest princess appeared and put an end to it.
"I know your origins,” says the eldest princess, and she commands everyone, "Let those from the sea to return to the sea, and those from the land to return to the land."
The grateful bomoh and the fisherman’s friends present the princess with coloured rice as an offering to the spirits of the sea. This practice, along with the Ulek Mayang dance, continued until the Islamic revival movement of recent decades.

Sources :
*Assignment under STID 1103


There are a number of suggestions for the origin of the name Kelantan. One theory, according to historian Mohd Rosli Bin Ismail, proposes that Kelantan is a corruption of gelam hutan, i.e. the Malay word for the cajuput, or swamp tea tree (Melaleuca leucadendron). Other theories claim that the name comes from the Malay word kilatan, 'shiny/glittery' or kolam tanah, 'clay pool'. Kelantan was called Kalantan (Thaiกลันตัน) by the Siamese when it was under their influence.
Another occasionally quoted suggestion is that 'Kelantan' derived originally from the Indian 'Kolaan Thana' or 'Kolaam Thana', which meant 'Land of Kolaan' or 'Land of Kolaam', the term 'kolaan' or 'kolaam' referring to the floor paintings/diagrams in the numerous Hindu temples which dotted the land in the very ancient days. 'Kolaan Thana' or 'Kolaam Thana' gradually became 'Kelantan' to fit in better with the speaking dialect of the local people.
The early history of Kelantan traces distinct human settlement dating back to prehistoric times. Early Kelantan had links to the FunanKingdom, the Khmer EmpireSri VijayaMajapahit and Siam[citation needed]. Around 1411, Raja Kumar, the ruler of Kelantan, became independent of Siam, and Kelantan became an important centre of trade by the end of the 15th century.
In 1499, Kelantan became a vassal state of the Malacca Sultanate. With the fall of Malacca in 1511, Kelantan was divided up and ruled by petty chieftains, paying tribute to Patani, then the supreme Malay Kingdom of the eastern peninsula. By the early 17th century, most of these Kelantan chiefs became subject to Patani.
The legendary Cik Siti Wan Kembang was said to have reigned over Kelantan sometime between the 16th and 17th centuries.
The flag of Kelantan before 1924. The flag incorporates Kitmir, a dog from Surah Al-Kahf.
Around 1760, Long Yunus, an aristocratic warlord of Patani origin succeeded in unifying the territory of present-day Kelantan and enthroned by his father-in-law Ku Tanang Wangsa, Regent of Terengganu as Yang di-Pertuan Muda or Deputy Ruler of Kelantan. Long Yunus was succeeded in 1795 by his son-in-law Tengku Muhammad Sultan Mansur of Terengganu. The enthronement of Tengku Muhammad by Terengganu was opposed by Long Yunus' sons, thus triggering a war against Terengganu by Long Muhammad, the eldest son of Long Yunus. The pro-Terengganu faction was defeated in 1800 and Long Muhammad ruled Kelantan with the new title of Sultan as Sultan Muhammad I. Nevertheless the death of childless Long Muhammad triggered another civil war among claimants to the throne. His nephew and son of Long Tan (Temengggong), Long Senik Mulut Merah, triumphed over his uncles and cousins and assumed the throne in 1835 as Sultan Muhammad II.
Sultan Muhammad II leveraged on his loose alliance with Siam to form the modern Kelantan state, centered in his new fort on the eastern bank of the Kelantan river, which became Kota Bharu in 1844.
Under the terms of the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909, the Thais relinquished their claims over Kelantan, TerengganuKedah and Perlis to Great Britain, and Kelantan thus became one of the Unfederated Malay States with a British Adviser.
Kelantan was where the Japanese first landed during their invasion of Malaya, on 8 December 1941. In 1943, Kelantan was transferred by the Japanese to Thailand and became a province of Thailand. Kelantan reverted to British protection upon the end of World War 2 in August 1945.
Kelantan became part of the Malayan Union in 1946 and then the Federation of Malaya on 1 February 1948, and together with other Malayan states attained independence on 31 August 1957. On 16 September 1963, Kelantan became one of the states of Malaysia.

Source :
*assignment under STID 1103

The Story of Puteri Gunung Ledang

The Legend of Gunung Ledang revolves around a princess that allegedly lived on Mount Ophir in Johor, Malaysia.
The Sultan had heard of her beauty and wanted to marry her but she set seven impossible conditions for him. The conditions were:
-A golden bridge for her to walk to Malacca from the mountain,
-A silver bridge for her to return from Malacca to the mountain,
-Seven jars of virgin's tears,
-Seven bowls of betel nut juice,
-Seven trays filled with hearts of germs,
-Seven trays filled with hearts of mosquitoes, and
-A bowl of the blood of the Sultan's young son.

Some versions of the legend say that the Sultan was not able to fulfill any of these requests, while others say that he was able to fulfill the first six requests (thus causing the ruin of the Malacca Sultanate) but could not fulfill the final request which would have required him to kill his son. The point of the story is that the Sultan was either too proud or too blind to realise that the conditions were the Puteri's way of turning his proposal down.
Some say that remnants of the gold and silver bridge still exist, but have been reclaimed by the forest.


The mythical Mount Ledang

Why The Story of "Hang Tuah" was taken off from history

REASON WHY IN SEJARAH OF MALAYSIA SINCE YEAR 1999 Study about HANG TUAH isMISSING ????? " The Truth Revealed (with evidence)" In June 1998, the Government of Malaysia had hired a team ofexperts in conjunction with a local research project to prove that theMalays are the origins of Malaysia and they first landed in Malaysia. To strengthen their claim, first they had to find the graveyardsof Hang Tuah, Hang Jebat, Hang Lekiu to show the existence of theirpioneers. The Batu Bersurat in Terengganu, reveals that the Islamic Religionhad landed in Malaysia a hundred years ago, which further strengthenedtheir claims! That is why, we were taught Sejarah (History of Malaysia)!!!! BEWARE……..ask your brother, sister, niece, nephew etc. etc,since year 1999 (if I’m not mistaken) or year 2000, do they study aboutHANG TUAH anymore???????? Why is the popular subject GONE????? Missing in action??????? orevidence revealed something different that caused the government tostop the syllabus and HIDE the TRUTH???????? Here are the Evidence of the findings of the team ofscientists, archaeologists, historians and other research staff fromthe USA, United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Yemen & Russia. 1st Evidence They finally found the graveyards of Hang Tuah, Hang Jebat etc andtheir skeletons had been analysed and samples of DNA taken with theresults showing Hnag Tuah, Hang Jebat and Hang Lekiu were not MALAYS! They were CHINESE (Islamic) from China!!! and why were they herein Malacca????? Because they were on a mission to protect the MALAYSfrom the potential attack of SIAM (Thailand)!!! So, Hang Tuah is not Malay hero!!! He was the protector ofParameswara (from INDONESIA) who landed in Malacca and claimed theland!!! The Hang Tuah bunch of people were all from China and they wereassigned to Malacca because Parameswara requested the Ching DynastyEmporer for protection!!! This is why the Hang Tuah series of history is MISSING from SEJARAH!!!! 2nd. Evidence The researchers found the oldest tombstone (graveyard) in Kelantanin year 2000. Suprisingly, the tomb stone was at least 900 yearsold!!!!…older than the so-called Batu Bersurat and it belonged to theChinese. Having first landed in Malacca doesn’t mean Malays were theorigins of Malaysia because during that time, the road was too long forthem to see the other side of the coast!!! where the Chinese had landedfar more earlier. If you want the black and white evidence of the "Truth Revealed", please write to: The Federal Association of Archaeology & Research of Michigan, USA
Source :*assignment under STID 1103


Jakarta is the capital city of the Republic of Indonesia, a country composed of more than 13,000 islands with a population of over 180 million. Comprising more than 300 ethnic groups speaking 200 different languages, the Indonesia population exhibits marked diversity in its linguistic, culture, and religious traditions. As the Capital City, Jakarta is a melting pot of representatives from each of these ethnic groups. Jakarta is a special territory enjoying the status of a province, consisting of Greater Jakarta, covering of 637.44 square km area. Located on the northern coast of West Java, it is the center of government, commerce and industry and has an extensive communications network with the rest of the country and the outside world. Strategically positioned in the archipelago, the city is also the principal gateway to the rest of Indonesia. From the Capital City, sophisticated land, air, and sea transport is available to the rest of the country and beyond.Jakarta is one of Indonesia's designated tourist areas. It is a gateway to other tourist destinations in Indonesia and is equipped with all the means of modern transportation by air, sea, rail, or by land. It has the largest and most modern airport in the country, the most important harbor in Indonesia and is well connected by rail of good roads to other destinations in Java, Sumatra, and Bali. As Indonesia's main gateway, Soekarno-Hatta International Airport serves a growing number of international airlines and domestic flights. Jakarta is a city of contrasts; the traditional and the modern, the rich and the poor, the sacral and the worldly, often stand side by side in this bustling metropolis. Even its population gathered from all those diverse ethnic and cultural groups, which compose Indonesia, are constantly juxtaposed present reminder of the national motto; Unity in Diversity.Finding its origin in the small early 16th century harbor town of Sunda Kelapa, Jakarta's founding is thought to have taken place on June 22, 1527, when it was re-named Jayakarta, meaning Glorious Victory by the conquering Prince Fatahillah from neighboring Cirebon. The Dutch East Indies Company, which captured the town and destroyed it in 1619, changed its name into Batavia and made it the center for the expansion of their power in the East Indies. Shortly after the outbreak of World War II, Batavia fell into the hands of the invading Japanese forces that changed the name of the city into 'Jakarta' as a gesture aimed at winning the sympathy of the Indonesians. The name was retained after Indonesia achieved national independence after the war's end.The ethnic of Jakarta called "Orang Betawi" speaks Betawi Malay, spoken as well in the surrounding towns such as Bekasi and Tangerang. Their language, Betawi Malay, has two variations: conventional Betawi Malay, spoken by elder people and bred in Jakarta, and modern Jakarta Malay, a slang form spoken by the younger generation and migrants.

source :*Assignment under STID 1103